Decriminalised for personal use in small amounts in the Australian Capital Territory, South Australia and the Northern Territory. It is a criminal offence in New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, Victoria and Tasmania. In SA a person can legally grow 1 non-hydroponic plant, and in the ACT 2 non-hydroponic plants may be grown on their own property for personal use, and in the N.T two non-hydroponic plants can be fined $200 with 28 days to pay rather than face criminal charge. Enforcement varies from state to state, though a criminal conviction for possession of a small amount is unlikely and diversion programs in these states aim to divert offenders into education, assessment and treatment programs. With the rapid expansion in hydroponically grown cannabis cultivation, the Australian Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act (1985) was amended in 2006, reducing the amount of cannabis grown indoors under hydroponic conditions that qualifies as a 'commercial quantity' or as a 'large quantity'.
On 24 February 2016, the Federal Government legalised the growing of cannabis for medicinal and scientific purposes at a federal level. Subsequently the use of medicinal cannabis was legalised by the Victorian government on 12 April 2016.